Père Pierre-Marie GY
La liturgie à l’époque romane
In the liturgy of the Romanesque period (at the time the liturgy was called the “divine office”, “the office of the Church”) the faithful receive communion less frequently than in former times, and the practice of receiving from the chalice begins to disappear. Annual confession, however, becomes obligatory, and funerals in the church become the norm. In Western Europe almost everyone is baptized. The lay faithful, almost entirely illiterate, venerate holy images, and the cult of Christ’s presence in the Eucharist develops–during the thirteenth century it will lead to the elevation of the Eucharist in the canon of the mass and to the new feast of Corpus Christi. At the end of the twelfth century a spiritual shift draws piety away from that of the patristic period and initiates a new piety towards Christ and the Virgin Mary, marked by the Marian piety of St. Bernard and also the devotion to the crucified Jesus of St. Francis, who will also be the first to attribute to Christmas an importance greater than that of Easter.
Manuel Antonio CASTIÑEIRAS GONZÁLEZ
Topographie Sacrée, liturgie pascale et reliques dans les grands centres de pèlerinage : Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle, Saint-Isidore-de-Léon et Saint-Étienne-de-Ribas-de-Sil
During 11th and 12th centuries, competition between the great pilgrimage centres led some sanctuaries to develop an special policy of artistic emulation. In the case of Compostela, the Cathedral was conceived as an intricate and complex system of cultural, architectural and iconographical citations, responding to the propaganda of St. James ‘ See, and to its willing to fulfil the expectations of its receptors. This was the reason for the special location and dedication of the upper and lower chapels and altars in the Cathedral, for the use of certain architectural typologies evocating Rome, and, also, for the choice of some images strongly related both, to the Gregorian Reform and to the affirmation of the Jacobean See. On the other hand, during the 12th century, Pascal Liturgy and the remembering of the Holy Places seem to become a topos within the iconographical programs along the pilgrimage roads to Santiago, trying to put together the penitential sense reflected in the sculpted portals from the Camino de Santiago and the salvation in the Jerusalem’s imaginary in a newly created “both ways” iconography.
Cryptes et sanctuaires, approches historiques et archéologiques des circulations
Les massifs occidentaux des églises romanes de Toulouse
Les peintures murales de Saint-Pierre de la Seu d’Urgell et leur environnement liturgique
La peinture dans le cloître : l’exemple de Sant Pere de Rodes
Pascale CHEVALIER, Arlette MAQUET
Les installations liturgiques romanes dans le diocèse de Clermont
Découvertes récentes : des autels, des armoires, des chancels, des tombeaux
New archaeological data have deeply changed the understanding of two major medieval monuments in the diocese of Clermont: the very cathedral and the clunisian priory of Souvigny. Romanesque liturgical features in the crypt of Clermont cathedral consist in altars, liturgical cupboards and niches, etc., mainly reusing fragments of a Carolingian chancel. In Souvigny however, the reused sarcophagus of saint Mayeul and saint Odilon was roofed by a first monument, later enclosed in a ciborium, then transformed into a tomb, whilst the chancel screen of the monastic choir was always placed directly to the east of the monument. The liturgical and memorial features of the two churches are complementary, despite an apparent difference of functions. Altars, cupboards, chancels et tombs allow us to understand better the everyday liturgy, the evolutions of the way spaces were managed by the various users of churches.
L’histoire des autels portatifs par Jean-Baptiste Gattico (1704-1754)
Inscrire son nom dans l’espace liturgique à l’époque romane
Architecture, liturgie et organisation de l’espace ecclésial
Essai sur la notion d’espace dans l’architecture religieuse du moyen âge