La Catalogne autour de 1100
The Arabian graphic signs of the sealing ring of Ermessende de Carcassonne, the marriage of her son officiated by Mundir, Emir of Saragossa, the correspondance of her daughter-in-law Almodis de la Marche with the Emir of Denia or the marriage of Maria Roderic, the Cid’s daughter, with Raimon Berenger III, stage, through the women, the relations that the Catalans are keeping up in 1100, with Islam.They passed, indeed, from a peacefull coexistence, or even from a steady alliance to fight against co-religionists, with an open hostility.
In 1148, with the conquest of Tortosa, the territory of Catalonia increased more than twice, and this geographical expansion accompanies an identitary affirmation of catalanity. To struggle against Almoravides, the Count of Barcelona leans on the Crusade ideology, supported by the papal legates, even when his peninsular neighbours rather gain the Visigotic heritage with the notions of “destruction-restauration” of the Hispania. It’s altogether the new way of collaboration to the war, with its ideological prolongements which appears as the determining element of the relations between Christendom and Islam, in Catalonia.
Valence et les musulmans valenciens face aux chrétiens à l’époque de la reconquête
We propose a brief vision of the Muslim society of Valencia in face of the Christians at the time of the Reconquest, from the time of the Cid (end of the XIth century) until the repression of the last great revolt of the Mudejars of Valencia (1275-1279). In a large proportion, the population is descended from the Romano-Wisigoths who were populating these regions, before the Muslim conquest. The population is almost entirely islamised from the second quarter of the XIIth century when the last identifiable Mozarabic elements seem to disappear. It is also certainly, in its majority, culturally Arabic. The town have been active centres of a linguistic arabisation which also forced itelf into the country. The Andalusian elite though aware of the ineluctable Christian advance, were not able to find an adequate answer to this threat. The Catalano-Aragones conquest, and the repression of the revolts overthrow the urban elites and the Islamic govermental apparatus. The still extant Muslim population, in most cases rural, is in situation of minority from political, social and economic points of view, dominated in a structure that could be qualified “colonial”
La Sicile, de la précroisade à la monarchie œcuménique (1060-1190)
La fortification au Proche-Orient avant les croisades : l’exemple du Sahyun
Les chrétiens orientaux face à l’Islam, de la fin du XIe à la fin du XIIIe siècle
Présence et reflets de l’art islamique en Italie méridionale au Moyen âge
There are still persisting difficulties in assessing the place where a large group of eleventh- and twelfth-century ”oliphants” (elephant tusks) were executed. On the basis of circumstantial and comparative evidence, scholars have suggested Southern Italy and more precisely Campania (Salerno or Amalfi) as the locality where a number of these objects might have been produced. However, although Campanian sculpture bears some similarity with these works, it cannot be taken for granted that this proves a common place of origin. Further investigation and comparison with the sculpture of its most important churches may prove that eleventh-century Bari (Apulia) may have been the major center of production of these oliphants. In fact, evidence for this supposition may be also supported by iconographic similarities between the oliphants and Apulian mss. Furthermore, if both stylistic affinities (already proposed by scholars for some ivories) as well as iconographic ones are convincing, even more so is the historical context which makes this hypothesis worthy of serious consideration. Indeed, Bari was most likely the city where aristocratic and wealthy patronage would have been affected by artifacts produced in a Byzantine and Islamic milieu. For these reasons, ”Southern-Italian oliphants” represent one of the most fascinating and enigmatic aspects of the artistic and social life of the Mediterranean world and provide an example of the deep and fruitful contacts between Byzantium, Islam and the West. Only further research may prove the viability of the argument here presented.
L’ivoirerie de la péninsule ibérique aux XIe-XIIe siècles : entre Andalus et Hispania
Des objets en migration : les itinéraires des objets islamiques vers l’Occident latin au Moyen âge
Numerous churches in the Latin West proudly display Islamic objects in their treasuries. Moreover, according to medieval inventories, a large number of Islamic artefacts are known to have been kept in church treasuries in Europe. Many of them have simply disappeared. Others were sacked, looted or even destroyed during wars. Nonetheless, quite a few Islamic artefacts, which are kept at present in public and private collections, are known to have originally been kept in church treasuries. Thus, the Islamic objects kept or known to have been kept in the medieval West are the ‘archaeological evidence’ for the intensive East-West relationship.
The aim of this short study is to illustrate the varied ‘routes’ by which Islamic objects reached the Latin West. Therefore the artefacts are not classified according to their material, provenance or date but rather according to their biography, namely their specific itinerary route of transport to the Latin West. These are: blessed mementoes and souvenirs, royal and diplomatic presents, trophies of wars and luxury traded goods.
À propos de la cuve de Xàtiva : un exemple de synthèse des substrats classique et islamique
Xavier BARRAL i ALTET
Sur les supposées influences islamiques dans l’art roman : l’exemple de la cathédrale Notre-Dame du Puy-en-Velay
In 1911, Emile Mâle propose that many architectural or decorative features of the Notre-Dame du Puy cathedral, and of others buildings of Auvergne, followed an arabo-islamic pattern, through muslim Spain. A better comprehension of these features, and of the cultural background before the romanesque period leads us to reject this theory of influences.
Arcs trilobés et polylobés dans l’architecture romane. À propos des tribunes de Notre-Dame du Port de Clermont
Making an historiographical balance about romanesque multifoiled archs in France, it appears that no study has been dedicated to those of the galleries of Notre-Dame du Port. This group of archs, well known since the considerations made by Emile Mâle in 1911, longer placed Auvergne at the heart of a theory of an islamic influence on the romanesque art. In fact, trefoiled archs carry on serious and various problems, as considering architecture, ordering or the place that these peculiar forms take in the regional context, and the whole France.
Les églises du Serrablo, en Haut-Aragon, et le mythe mozarabe
The upper basin of the river Gallego, in the heart of the newborn realm of Aragon, is a geographical and historical entity with a significant number of early medieval churches which have common peculiar characteristics. Art historians disagree on the origin and on the period when these churches were built: some consider that they belong to the Mozarab period, while others believe that they were built during the Romanesque one. The study we undertook through its best achievement, the church of Sant Andrés de Lárrede, jointly to an analysis of three chapels which are undoubtedly older, and to the study of the recently discovered ruins of the monastery of San Pelay in Gavín provide a new insight on their filiations, and lead to reject the mozarab hypothesis. It is clear enough that this is an outstanding genuine Romanesque group of churches which results from a political and artistic will that some clues lead us to assign to Banzo, abbot of Fanlo in the second half of the eleventh century. This remarkable abbot elaborated and promoted a new type of churches which makes Serrablo, whatever modern economical or cultural drivers may be, an authentic testimony of Romanesque genuine skill at his best.
Quelques traces artistiques des relations entre Al-Andalus et l’espace ibéro-occitan
À propos des “motifs islamiques” dans la sculpture romane du Sud-Ouest
The story of Art of his first half of the XXth century has been conquered by the idea that a part of the romanesque art was indebted to the art of Al-Andalus. In fact, if we may take this for granted, the two arts draw from the same spring of Antiquity, and certain motives appear from a shared taste.
It’s striking to note that, in the sculpture of South-West of France, during the XIth century and at the beginning of the XIIth, in a region however broadly concerned by what happens beyond the Pyrenees, we find only a very small allusion to the Muslims. In this context the capital of Moissac’s cloister whith shows a scene “Moorish flavour” has a very peculiar interest since it permits to understand the genesis of a motive of the romanesque sculpture.
L’église de Planès et son interprétation comme mosquée au XIXe siècle
The Planès church excites curiosity since some centuries : it is a triangular-planned building, with three apses, for which there is no real comparison in the West. Attributed since the XIXth century to the romanesque period, it was considered, between the end of the XVIIIth and the middle of the XIXth centuries as an arabo-islamic building, originary a mosque.
This article studies the history of that identification and proposes an analysis of its signification in the context of Roussillon historiography.
L’autel majeur de l’église Saint-Pierre de Théza et ses aménagements