L’aristocratie méridionale autour de 1100
Teresa VINYOLES – Elena CANTARELL
“Castell és com qui diu casa alta”. La vie de la petite noblesse médiévale en Catalogne
Guy BARRUOL – François GUYONNET – Marie-Pierre ESTIENNE – Francesco FLAVIGNY
Le château médiéval de Simiane en Provence
The château of Simiane, situated in the southern part of the French Alpes de Haute Provence, has been undergoing restoration for some years. Recent archaelogical research provides a new understanding of the different buildings which make up the château. The main tower, dating from the end of the 12th century of the beginning of the 13th, known as the Rotonde, is a symbolic monument, with unusual architecture and decoration. Today it is possible to interpret the Simiane Rotonde together with the other buildings which constitute the château. Dominating the village and the valley, it has an oval shape that was there from the beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, with the main tower at the centre, rising above a courtyard with living quarters built into the ramparts.
Le décor peint dans l’habitat aristocratique médiéval : exemples méridionaux
The aristocratic and patrician environment of medieval Noon preserves this day no example of decoration paints that can be previous in 1200. In spite of this negative archaeological report, it is advisable to consider the factors – perpetuity of the pictorial tradition and contemporary literary sources – that authorize to evoke the
presence of murals in the Romanic civil architecture. In parallel, it is allowed to think about the function attributed to the mural in buildings with residential character, a custom that, in the case of the figurative decorations met from the XIIIth century, can show itself directly significant of the social status of the financier. Without real specificities, those Southern pictorial sets, which belong first Gothic production, associate an organization and an indisputably northerly general aesthetics to a decorative directory from which only some motives can translate a Southern originality.
Cuixà et l’aristocratie catalane
A large monastery as Cuixà maintains with the aristocracy complex relations because of its religious functions and its rich landowner situation, like lord beside other lords, in conflict or competition with the powerful ones. The charters of the abbey illustrate many aspects of the implication of the monastery in the feudal world which surrounds it : the difficulty in making respect the testamentary legacies by the heirs to the aristocratic families, the weight of the charges of public or military origin on the grounds of the abbey, the division of the ecclesiastical rights concerned with private churches or monastic dependences, the entry of the nobles in the vassalage of the monastery, actor in the feudal relationship, the making of documents falsified to justify the rights of Cuixà against the claims of the laics. Beside the simple acts that are the donations or the wills, the acts of resolution of conflicts are of the interest to reveal subjacent relations of force, exceptionally put at the day at the time of conflicts concluded by an abandonment which gives satisfaction to the monks, while very often compensating the opposing party. The image that these documents give is that of an active implication of the monks in the relations of power, indispensable condition of the inscription of the monastery in the society of its time and of the perenniality of its autonomy and its functions.
La chapelle de la Trinité de Saint Michel de Cuixà. Conception théologique et symbolique d’une architecture singulière
Contribution à l’histoire des biens meubles et immeubles de l’abbaye Saint-Michel de Cuxa (v. 1750 – v. 1950)
Les demeures aristocratiques des villes méridionales à l’époque romane
The origin of the aristocratic dwelling is to be found in the princely residences. A good deal of them are well-known in the regions of South France but a few have been studied. These residences are organized in different fields (political, religious, private and economic) according to the necessities of princely life. On such a model will the urban aristocracy member’s dwellings be built : knights, ministers, lords and other elites who emerge in the towns from the mid 12th century on. These buildings stand out in the urban landscape for the emplacement, the size, the care in the construction and other ostentatious architectural elements like the tower, the military apparel or a thoroughly sculptured decoration.
La voix du héros.Note sur la fabrication et l’utilisation des cors médiévaux comme instruments de musique
Le jeu d’échecs, une pratique de l’aristocratie entre Islam et chrétienté des IXe-XIIIe siècles
Julie ENCKELL JULLIARD
Entre patriciat urbain et pouvoir nobiliaire : Maurus d’Amalfi et le destinataire du coffret en ivoire dit de Farfa
Julia BELTRÁN DE HEREDIA BERCERO
Les élites locales et la formation du centre de pouvoir à Barcelone. Un exemple de continuité (IVe-XIIIe siècle)
Dominique WATIN GRANDCHAMP – Laurent MACÉ
Vestiges d’un monde aristocratique : une nécropole familiale dans un garage et une salle d’apparat dans le grenier d’une ancienne abbaye
Montserrat PAGÈS i PARETAS
Noblesse et patronage : El Burgal et Mur. La peinture murale en Catalogne aux XIe et XIIe siècles
This paper revises the paintings of El Burgal and Mur, taking into account the new discoveries of frescoes and archeological findings, as well as the historical sources, very important in relation with the frescoes and with the nobility who commanded them, the counts of Pallars Sobirà and Pallars Jussà respectively. The discovery of a fresco palimpsest in the church of El Burgal with the portraits of two young noble people, probably of the family of the counts, has lead the author to settle a new cronology for the paintings. The frescoes from Mur had been analysed in relation with the murder of the count Ramon V and with the oath of peace and truce of God that the bishop imposed to his successor, the count Pere Ramon, and to the count’s men. The connection of the paintings with those events is undeniable.
Dulce OCÓN ALONSO
“Regnum et sacerdotium” au monastère de Silos
This article is an approach to the second phase of the low cloister of Silos seen from the point of view of the patronage of the Castilian kings and the kingdom historical context during the second half of the XIIth. Bearing this in mind, the study analyses the connotations between the two relieves of the southwest pier and the French sculpture around 1180, and again with the aristocratic taste of that time. On the other hand, the incorporation of these relieves reveals the tendency of the cloisters of the second half of the XIIth century to incorporate subjects that were previously developed in early gothic façades. Finally, the article suggests a possible relationship between these sculptures and the funerary function of the cloister and with Martin de Finojosa, the king’s advisor on pious foundations.
Jordi CAMPS I SÒRIA – Immaculada LORÉS I OTZET
Le patronage dans l’art roman catalan
Although the aristocratic promotion of Arts and Architecture in Catalonia en the Xth century had been isolated and exceptional, it grew during the XIth and XIIth centuries. The initiatives of Counts and Bishops were taken within the structures between aristocratic families and the powers that were, in such a way that personalities like abbot, bishop Oliba or Barcelona’s countess Ermessenda had been promoted the most important buildings of the XIth century, and to a lesser degree other feudal lords, such as the viscount of Osona and Arnau Mir de Tost. By the XIIth century records of the period show us that such promotions were no longer such an important part of the documentation of the time. Our aims in this paper are to present a general panorama and to suggest a starting point fort it’s study.
Bérangère SOUSTRE DE CONDAT
Pouvoir et mécénat : le rôle des femmes dans le développement des arts religieux en Sicile (XIe – 1ère moitié du XIIIe siècle)
Nathalie LE LUEL
Angoulême, Modène, Bari : l’image de l’aristocratie guerrière à la conquête de l’espace religieux ?
The cathedrals of Saint Peter in Angoulême, of San Geminiano in Modena, and the basilica of San Nicola in Bari all three present façades decorated with large epic scenes in which the warlike aristocracy comes to light. Historians, art historians and researchers in literature have often tried to establish a link between these three examples of monumental sculpture and medieval chivalric literature and then, more directly, with history of the XIth-XIIth centuries (particularly with wars led in the name of God). However the present article tackles less the precise identification of each of the motives than the question of the general meaning of these heroic representations placed in religious contexts and deliberately set on the outsides of the sanctuaries. Thus, it appears that the images studied are above all the visual paragraphs of a political discourse praised by the Church, a discourse in which they attempt to display the relations they keep with the warlike aristocracy and their will to shape the chivalric ideology.