Introduction. Tombeaux et sépultures de l’époque romane : les monuments de l’indicible
In all cultures, death is conceived, expressed, represented by the living and for the living. Death is thought, fundamentally, in the light of life. In romanesque times, for the clergy and alike for faithful, to talk about death, to apprehend it, to go over it is inseparable from Christian thought in which « life » may, according to the record on which we place ourselves, be real or ideal, physical or spiritual, ephemeral or eternal. The « death » is then not an end but a fundamental event in human existence divided between this world and after-life with porous borders, stretched over a time frame.
As an introduction to this volume, we offer to browse two parallel tracks : one that suggests to think about life, both body and soul, here down and after-life ; the other, to transcend death, looking at the burial monument as it refers to death, disappearance, absence – the unspeakable, then, that words and images are struggling to express.
Écrire sur, écrire dans, écrire près de la tombe. Les aspects topographiques de l’inscription funéraire (IXe-XIIe siècle)
Medieval inscriptions can, for a large number of them, be considered as « funeral », in spite of the fact that it is very difficult to define clearly what we understand by this typology. It concerns indeed inscriptions of highly varied forms, contents and functions ; the only common denominator consists of the fact that it evokes death and its circunstances. Funeral texts take place on very diverse objects, from the element forming integral part of a monument to the isolated liturgical object, unlinked to the grave. Without claiming to resolve all the questions about funeral epigraphy, this paper wants to advance some reflections around writing in its very relation to the grave by seeing the topographic data of the funeral inscriptions.
Archéologie du cimetière paroissial dans le Midi, en contexte rural (IXe-XIVe siècles)
The interest of archaeologists and historians for the cemetery or the dead’s world in general is not new. Initially focused on the cemeteries of the early Middle Ages, the attention of archaeologists has recently shifted to later centuries thanks to the development of urban archaeological excavation led to the urban church cemeteries or burial sites of religious communities. These operations, often newer, provide valuable data on the organization of the burial area, its management, burial practices or typo-chronology of the graves. On all these sites, the contribution of anthropological fieldwork and taphonomic studies had been crucial for understanding the care given to the deceased. Similarly the contribution, for the historian and the archaeologist, of paleogenetic analysis or research on the DNA on certain pathogenic genes now opens new perspectives for the study of large funeral areas.
Les tombeaux des saints. Monuments funéraires élevés en France à l’époque romane en l’honneur de personnages à la sainteté admise ou reconnue
L’œuvre de tombier de l’atelier de R. de Bia (début du XIIIe siècle, Catalogne du Nord)
In the visible homogeneity of the marble Romanic sculpture of Catalonia of the North, it is difficult to find particular personalities, « maîtres » in the well asserted style. It is necessary to wait for the last third of the XIIth century and the beginning of the century following to see appearing from sculptors whose works distinguish themselves sharply from the whole production, that the historiography called for the oldest, for lack of signature, « Maître de Cabestany » and, for the most recent, « Raymond de Bianya », according to inscriptions engraved on several reliefs of similar invoice. The work of this last one is approached, since Marcel Durliat’s article in 1973, only within the framework of monographic studies.
We suggest here thinking about the name of the workshop, about its place in the artistic context roussillonnais opening on a production marble quarry funeral which, until then, seems to have been essentially reserved for the monumental and movable sculpture. Although as which could not be still resolved, the question of the origin and the formation of the workshop is raised.
Entre nécropoles et cimetières : tombes, lieux d’inhumation et mémoire funéraire à travers l’archéologie des VIIe-XIe siècles dans le sud de la France
The memory of the dead is a key element for the study of medieval burial practices and funerary areas. This paper presents an ongoing research as part of a PhD in funeral archaeology between the seventh and eleventh centuries. In Languedoc, the archaeological data support a detailed study of the grave and the cemetery, but also allow to address the underlying topics of the spatial organization, mortuary practices and funeral memory.
Arturo Carlo QUINTAVALLE
L’Antique et les monumenta de la Réforme grégorienne
La réutilisation funéraire des sarcophages paléochrétiens du sud-ouest de la France jusqu’au XIIIe siècle
With the rebirth of the city, its growth, its new monumentalization from the eleventh to the fourteenth century, Toulouse «recycled» in both the materials of his buildings and the Roman sarcophagi of its cemeteries, especially those of early christian age. We focus our attention on the reuse of funerary coffins carved in the fourth and fifth centuries that define an early Christian art specifics of a «great Southwest» in which it has spread from the upper valley of the Garonne. Art of the aristocracy of the late Roman Empire, it again became or never ceased to be a sign of social identity and power during the Middle Ages in regions that had initially used it. Thus it was, within the family of the Counts of Toulouse, and probably also among its allies and even his opponents, within the same territorial issues.
Remplois de sarcophages du haut Moyen Âge et souvenir de leur image à l’époque romane en Bourgogne et alentours
Between late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, the territory of Burgundy is the theater of the establishment of an real industry producing stone sarcophagi, both in the limestones of the Jurassic of the Paris Basin and in the sandstones of the southern edge of the Morvan. This phenomenon seems to accompany the Christianization of the population and can be illustrated by the increasing number of tombs in cemeteries associated with a sanctuary, as well as one can’t still understand the mechanisms of this process. But the link seems sufficiently strong with the early Middle Ages as that the sarcophagus, or image, a testament to the antiquity of the place, of its prestige or of those who wished to be buried there. The relation with the origins, the inclusion of the contemporaries in an established and recognized continuity, clearly passes through the use of physical evidence as the sarcophagus.
Panthéons comtaux en Catalogne à l’époque romane. Les inhumations privilégiées du monastère de Ripoll
Eduardo CARRERO SANTAMARIA
Cathédrale et topographie funéraire dans l’architecture médiévale de la Péninsule Ibérique
Nécropole dynastique, mémoire clanique : naissance et développement d’un phénomène
Around year one thousand appear a common concern of the aristocracy, that of celebration and maintenance of ancestral memory, which guarantees the legitimacy of these dynasties. The foundation of a necropolis was a way for the aristocracy to show the antiquity and continuity of lineage but also the domination of one family over a territory. This domination is showed in the accumulation of visual tombs, made of luxurious materials but also by lavish funerals. Thus, were founded on a quasi-contemporary dynastic pantheons of the counts of Vendome in the collegiate church of Saint-Georges-de-Vendôme, the counts of Angouleme at the Abbey of Saint-Cybard or Viscount of Beaumont at Etival-en-Charnie. Funeral dynastic politics was a mean, as well as religious foundations and castle buildings, to emphasize the feudal power of a line of noble descent.
Le tombeau de la reine Adélaïde de Maurienne (†1154) à Saint-pierre de Montmartre : entre célébration mémorielle et béatification
In 1153, Adelaide de Maurienne took the veil in the monastery Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, which she had previously undertaken the construction with her late husband King Louis VI. When installing the nuns in 1134, King was keen to put the emphasis on the personal involvement of the queen and the memory function and the Royal Abbey, saying he had founded it at the urging of his wife both for the repose of his soul than of its predecessors. Probably shortly after the death of the sovereign in 1154, was erected in the choir of nuns a tombstone bearing his image. This work has been carried out at least a generation before that begins to clarify the definition of lying eschatological destination. We must link this tomb to the series of romanesque burial tombs meant to commemorate the founder’s memory, who now almost reached the heavenly glory, could be invoked as privileged intercessor for the community. Moreover, the monument of Adelaide de Maurienne must be formally and stylistically closer to the Merovingian kings tombs retrospective made in Saint-Germain-des-Pres in the mid-twelfth century. The royal effigy of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre is, under such conditions, an important marker for chronological dating of the first Gothic sculpture of the Ile-de-France.
Vie et mort dans le Panthéon de San Isidoro de León
This study argues that medieval memory resides not only in burials but also in royal palaces. The so-called Pantheon at San Isidoro in León provides the ideal example through which to address such a question, as this single architectural space encompassed multiple purposes and meanings. While the functions and uses of the building shifted during the eleventh and twelfth centuries according to the changing needs of the times and desires of the patrons, an undercurrent of memory was common throughout.
La mort de Thomas Becket d’après l’Espagne
Towards the middle of the twelfth century, the abbatial church of Saint-Michel de Cuxa has been endowed with a rood-loft that is only known today by its scattered elements in France and abroad. For the first time in the mid-twentieth century, the assumption of the existence of a rood-screen in Cuxa is formulated. From then, several studies are initiated to restore the morphology in plan and elevation of the lost construction. Current research focuses on the restitution of its structure in three dimensions. In the absence of specific evidence (textual or graphic), careful examination of the stone allows the formulation of new assumptions.
L’ancienne tribune abbatiale de Saint-Michel de Cuxa. De la sculpture à la structure, nouvelle approche
Story of the death, burial, worship and veneration of the Doge of Venice Peter Orseolo, Cuixà monk in the tenth century. Explanation of objective evidences remaining of these facts.
Daniel CODINA i GIOL
Mort, sépulture et culte de saint Pierre Orséolo à Saint-Michel de Cuxa
Les reliques du doge Pietro Orseolo conservées à Saint-Michel de Cuxa et à Saint-Pierre de Prades : à quels saints se vouer ?
The figure of the Doge of Venice Pietro Orseolo (928-988) converted to the monastic life and retired to Saint-Michel of Cuxa, remains inextricably tied to the history of the abbey where, according to the hagiographic tradition, he led a life of prayer and penance until his death in the year 988. Sacralised by the abbot and bishop Oliba, the corporal remains of Pietro Orseolo experienced a turbulent history, ending from a translation to another till the division of the holy body. Examination of the contents of the two reliquary attributed to the saint, kept one in the treasury of the parish church of Saint-Pierre de Prades and the other at the Abbey of Cuxa leads to reconsider the issue of relics from this illustrated character, comparing historiographical and anthropobiological data.
Une mémoire enfouie. Réflexion autour du dépôt despontificalia et d’inscriptions nominales dans les tombes d’évêques aux XIe et XIIe siècles : l’exemple de l’Aquitaine
During the 11th and 12th centuries, the episcopal tomb is the support of different sorts of memories : both the individual and personal memory of the one it shelters, and at the same time, in relation to the particular status of the deceased, the memory of the Church that he formerly directed and embodied during his life. As a genuine material interface between the dead and the community of the living - which, in this particular case, potentially includes the entire clergy as well as the faithful of the diocese - it is possible to recognize different forms and degrees of expression of remembrance in both visible and invisible elements that constitute it. The Bishop’s tomb, considered together with the ecclesial, liturgical and funerary environment in which it takes part, can thus be regarded as a proper « object of memoria ».
La sépulture de Obertus de Placentini dans la basilique de San Savino
The analysis of the burials that characterize the church of San Savino in Piacenza allowed to say with confidence that the complex is built according to a widespread use, an area already occupied by a Roman necropolis where he still insists on the eastern end of city. As often happens with burial areas that border the evacuation routes in ancient times also the basilica saviniana becomes an important focal point for the development of the city’s medieval fabric of settlements and the Benedictine monastery built alongside it, so as to transform the surrounding area from suburbio to vicinia. The discovery of an unpublished column-tomb, once directly overlooking the northern side of the cloister, with an inscription attributed to a person lived within the first decades of the twelfth century, Obertus de Placentini, allowed to clarify the timing of a building that is critical in the debate on the origin of Lombard Romanesque architecture, the subject of a historical monograph written by Roberto Salvini in 1978.
Maria Lluïsa QUETGLES ROCA
Les deux sculpteurs du sarcophage de Doña Sancha
The sarcophagus of Doña Sancha has deserved much interest, at least since the beginning of XVII c., as it shows the sermon pronounced in 1622, when it was translated into its present location. In the last century, it was above all the subject of an article by A. K. Porter (1924) and the doctoral thesis by D. L. Simon (1977), indispensable by the historiographical account and the demonstration of two workshops having worked together on the monument. The author does not make a clear attribution of the two minor faces, but it is just because of them that it is possible, in this article, to determine the zone of action of each sculptor.Beyond these facts, this paper lays the foundations of a new iconographic interpretation from an historical and political approach, as Doña Sancha herself might have commissioned her own sarcophagus.
Les plates-tombes bourguignonnes : la constitution d’un modèle (XIIe-XIIIe siècles)
The medieval burial monument is initially a simple stone blade, roughly rectangular and anthropomorphic, on which the cross tooks a prominent place. However, there is quite a rapid customization of the burial stone. Markers elements appear alongside or instead of the cross and people start to include text on the monument itself. In Burgundy, in the middle of the thirteenth century the medieval burial stone turns into normalized form and function, with the representation of the portrait of the deceased, associated with funerary inscription. Within a century, concern for the salvation of the soul, which was the main argument to be buried in the church, is overtaken by the need to leave on the stone in the signs of his time on earth. At the spiritual commemorating enlisted therefore a more memorial one.
Marc SUREDA i JUBANY
In memoria eterna erit justus. Art, liturgie et mémoire au tombeau de Guillem de Montgrí (†1273)
Guillem de Montgrí (1195-1273), high sacristan of Girona cathedral and elected archbishop of Tarragona, conqueror of the Pitiüse Islands, was one of the most important figures in the 13th century in Catalonia. At his funerary monument, virtually reconstructed, his gothic tomb with gisant and enfeu - perhaps the most ancient of this type in Catalonia - was placed beside the doorway to the cloister, which was also monumentalized and provided with an outstanding iconographical reflection. The ensemble, a work by mestre Bartomeu, was a high point of liturgical circulations as well as an excellent stage for the collective commemoration of the deceased, which we know through the documents. The monument was in a kind of turning point in the context of the cathedral, between the ancient usages and funerary topography, a new artistical expression and the way towards the formula that would become successful in some years: the gothic funerary chapel.
Les monuments funéraires du nord de l’Europe aux XIe-XIIe siècles. L’exception scandinave
Scandinavian funerary monuments of the eleventh century have specific characteristics so marked compared to those which were carried out simultaneously in the rest of Europe, that we can truly speak of «exception «. As for those Romanesque style which succeeded them, they have characteristics that yet distinguish them from other productions, even if they come closer in many respects. Furthermore, although epigraphy tooks on they a relevant place, shapes, styles and materials differ significantly across locations and sculpture workshops. The joint study of these two categories of monuments, notably allows to see how Christianity has accommodated some regional traditions regarding burial, before generating new, more in tune with his one traditions. It also lets us see the great variety of tomb shapes, and the astonishing iconographic syncretism evidenced by the monuments of the eleventh century, and the permeability of Romanesque sculpture to influences from outside – but that did not stop him keeping subtle ties with his past.
Autour de la représentation des funérailles : confrontation de sources iconographiques et liturgiques
This contribution is based on the observation of bas-reliefs which decorate the outside of Saint Jean’s cathedral in Perpignan, remarkable not only by their arrangement on the wall but also by their precise representation of funerals. From these works, we propose research aimed at gathering XIIth and XIIIth century images representing the dead, and more specifically their funerals, and what we can know about the corresponding liturgy. The theme can be divided into two parts : the first one on the liturgical sources themselves ; the second part is based on the analysis of images recounting funerals, by trying to show the evolution during the XIIIth century which leads to a very ritualised representation and more specifically to that of the absolution.