Un métier très contemporain : les artistes du haut Moyen Âge
In this paper we present some reflections on the problems in study of reality and on the medieval concept of “artist”, still in use. Therefore we also propose a revision of the term “art”. In both cases, their definitions, developed during the nineteenth century, project an homogeneous view that has little to do with the medieval period and its “artistic” reality.
Artiste-clericus ou artiste-laïque ? Apprentissage etcurriculume vitae du peintre en Catalogne et en Toscane
Utilisation et production de tesselles de mosaïque à l’époque romane d’après le De diversis artibus
Only chapters 12 and 15 of De diversis artibus approach the subject of the mosaic. They give important information, not just technically, but also on the author-compiler of the Treaty. This article aims to analyze the figures in these chapters to understand specific aspects of mosaic art and to consider the impact of technological studies on the general interpretation of De diversis artibus. The informations in chapter 12 are well documented by archeology and archaeometry. Instead an unlikely recipe is listed in chapter 15. Indeed the objects described in chapters 13-16 are defined as “Greek”, probably imported in Northern Europe. Why are these artifacts would they not been manufactured in Western Europe? One hypothesis, supported by archaeometric data and texts, is advanced here: the relationship between the gold coinage and the production of mosaics in gold leaf.
Le Liber Diversarum Artium : un intérêt renouvelé
These pages intend to present some of the research as part of a doctoral thesis undertaken for six months. The material study of paintings of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries preserved in Catalonia, facing a contemporary written knowledge, can explain the procedures in use at that time. The Liber Diversarum Artium is a representative cookbook of a knowledge which written tradition seams to appear before the fourteenth century. This technical treatise highlitghts the arts of painting. The author of this compilation is largely based on writings that preceded it, including the Diversis Artibusof Theophilus, but unlike the latter, the will of restructuring the knowledge he displays gives it a singular status.
La mise à profit de manuscrits antérieurs en tant que modèles par les miniaturistes du VIIIe au XIIe siècle
Without denying the part eventually played by sketch-books or other similar vectors for transmission of schemes, the present communication aims to draw attention on the considerable importance which probably equally had, regarding the history of book illumination in the Christian West from VIIIth to XIIth century, the immediate recourse to prior manuscripts likely to provide, in particular, more or less complex figurative compositions. Practically every main phase in the development of miniature production, and the main cultural centres, can be evoked by case studies clearly revealing the process here in question. We are by turns faced to examples of very accurate imitations, and to modifications substantial enough in respect to the model; as to these last ones, the adaptation to general artistic trends of the moment determines, of course, style inflexions; but, in matter of iconographical contents then, we are led to recognize the impact of new and very specific preoccupations, in relation with constantly changing historical context.
Giuseppa Z. ZANICHELLI
Les livres de modèles et les dessins préparatoires au Moyen Âge
The problem of the existence of model books in the Middle Ages has been studied particularly from the perspective of the continuity of this practice, handed down from Antiquity, in the workshops of mosaic artists, painters and illuminators. The recent discovery of the Papyrus of Artemidorus would seem to confirm this trend. But contemporary sources reveal a more complex situation, which changes over time. According to the studies of Kitzinger and Kessler, has been demonstrated in late Antiquity the use of iconographic guides, that can be implemented by the σχῆµατα, id est the use of the memory as mental repertoire by each artist. The model books appear only in eleventh and twelfth centuries, changing the professional organization of artists, with the participation of the laity in the production system.
Marilena MANIACI, Giulia OROFINO
Les « rouleaux d’Exultet » du Mont Cassin
(techniques de fabrication, caractéristiques matérielles, décoration, rapports avec les rouleaux grecs)
Despite the success they have enjoyed among historians, the Latin rolls of the Exultet have not yet revealed all the mysteries about their genesis, when the type was created, the dating and localization of many remaining witnesses, the steps and the dynamics of their production, transcription and decoration. An attractive hypothesis, but problematic, starts the genesis of the Exultet from the model of liturgical Greek rolls, for which we would be dealing with an unbroken tradition from late antiquity, with a presence in early Byzantine southern Italy. However, the Byzantine rolls are of different facies from their Latin counterparts, as evidenced by the comparison of physical, graphic and decorative characteristics of the Exultet and by the available data (less accurate and systematic) for Greek production, supported by the firsthand examination of some eastern and westren examples. While reviewing the overall bibliological characteristics of the corpus of Exultets, we paid particular attention to the original Cassinese witnesses, in order to assess the degree of homogeneity and the relevance of certain attributions.
« Styles » ou enlumineurs dans le scriptorium de Cîteaux ? Pour une relecture des premières miniatures cisterciennes
Broderie de la Création ou broderie du Salut ? Propositions de lecture iconographique du « Tapís de Girona »
One of the main objectives of our research is the revision of the iconographic programmes that compose the embroidery known as “the Creation” carefully studied by Pere de Palol, which is one of the most complex sumptuary artworks remaining from the Middle Ages. We have focused our reflexions on the iconography named “Vocatio Animalium” and its interpretation in the medieval world, describing the relation with the other iconographic scenes represented, especially the Maiestas and the cycle of Invention of the Holy Cross. This study aims to illustrate that the unity within the different programs leads to the concept of the Second coming of Christ developed by the Christian exegesis, evidencing the Salvation concept and its triumphal character.
Immaculada LORES, Josep PARET, Mia MARSE, M. José GRACIA, Lourdes DOMEDEL
La sculpture romane catalane sur bois : étude et restauration du Christ de Casarilh et de la Majesté de Beget
The transfer of both these Romanesque Christ images to the Centre de Restauració de Béns Mobles de la Generalitat de Catalunya has granted the opportunity to fully analyze and study them, detecting the pathologies and adopting the adequate decisions concerning their restoration in each case. The process has offered a significant qualitative leap about the knowledge of both pieces: concerning their structure and construction, regarding the different polychrome interventions, the estimated dating, and the employed materials.
La sculpture romane polychrome sur bois en Auvergne et Bourgogne : étude technique de quatre sculptures du Metropolitan Museum de New York
Technical analysis was carried out on four twelfth-century French polychrome wood sculptures in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: the Virgin and Child in Majesty from the vicinity of Autun, Burgundy; the Torso of Christ, linked to the abbey church of Lavaudieu; the Virgin and Child in Majesty, said to come from Montvianeix; and the so-called Morgan Madonna, or Virgin and Child in Majesty. Characterization of the wood species and construction, as well as a systematic study of original paint layers, has led to a clearer understanding of the materials and techniques of French Romanesque sculpture. The variety of paint systems observed - ranging from single layers of pure color to more complex layerings of pigment mixtures in egg tempera or oil media and translucent glazes - and the use of metal and glass elements underscore the sophistication of these works.
Emmanuelle MERCIER, Jana SANYOVA
Art et techniques de la polychromie romane sur bois dans l’Europe du Nord
The topic of these 43rd Romanesque Days is an opportunity for us to propose an analysis of the way Romanesque wood-carving evolved in northern Europe based on case studies carried out at the IRPA in Belgium. The sculptures are examined both in terms of their materiality ( materials and techniques) and of their appearance (surface and general effect). This comparative study is enhanced thanks to new analyses on old samples of material (cross-sections). Furthermore, two hitherto unpublished cases from the 11th and 12th centuries are analysed, and a pigment as yet unidentified in Belgium - vivianite - is highlighted in 11th centure works. The concordance of the data gathered in the various regions of northern Europe is looked into, as well as with old treatises.
Rosa M. GASOL
Technique et matériaux des peintures murales romanes en Catalogne
A review is made of the relevant technical information collected in the medieval European treatises of the time, to be able to relate it to the Catalan paintings under study. The recipes and recommendations taken from the technical treatises constitute the documentary base to know a priori”the materials used by the painters. A direct study and documentation has been carried out of the technical characteristics of certain mural groups preserved in situ and a strategy and a protocol of prior study has been developed for the painting and sampling. The study of the materials was carried out with the extraction and analysis of stratigraphic sections of the painting, which are the main source of information for understanding the sequence and technique of execution. The objectives of this paper are the diffusion of the artistic technology of Catalan mural painting, while establishing some parallels with other groups of murals and relating them to the technical sources of Western medieval painting.
Archéologie du décor mural : la redécouverte du programme ornemental de stucs et d’enduits peints dans l’ancienne église Sainte-Marie d’Alet-les-Bains
The stucco’s decoration of the ancient church St. Mary of Alet-les-Bains is one of the few examples of medieval stuccoes, preserved in situ in France. The incomplete state of the decoration and the fall of fragments precipitated joint intervention of archaeologists and restorers at the end of 2010, to preserve what remained of this precious artistic testimony. The recording of archaeological data before removing the landforms, helped to better understand the implementation and the development of the stuccoes and paintings on the walls. Furthermore, analysis of masonries and physical and chemical characterization of materials (stuccoes and paintings) provided information about technical aspects of manufacturing and implementation. Although a full restoration requires further deepening through the study of written sources for example, however the archaeological study, allows the access to the development of the mural decoration which combines both stuccoes, paintings and sculptures.
L’art de l’ivoire en question. À propos de la production mosane aux XIe et XIIe siècles
A group of ivories dating from the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been associated with Liège and his former diocese, because of their place of historic preservation or their style. The provenance and dating of some pieces still pose questions. These problems stem in part from the “variable geometry” concept of “art mosan”, and the crossing of influences between various art centers. In addition to these considerations, these ivories are witnessing an artistic practice, still in part unknown, on the patterns circulation and the acquisition of raw material. Therefore we will develop an inventory of some issues that can feed the theme of these Journées romanes.
Les vitraux romans de la cathédrale de Chartres. Techniques et gestes des peintres verriers
The three romanesque windows on the west front of Chartres, dating from the mid-twelfth century, received in 2011 a new restoration which has to review them closely. The three panels called the “Belle-Verrière”, dating from the same time, are the most important group of romanesque windows in France. Their study showed the importance of previous restorations. But it also revealed the great mastery of the painters on glass in coloring, cutting glass and painting. The gray batch is two tones, one dark brown, the other pale. Lines that define the drapery, faces and decor are very marked in the western windows, faster and looser in the “Belle-Verrière”. The ornaments of great delicacy are often defined by scraping against a background of one-coloured.
Techniques décoratives de carreaux de pavement (fin XIIe-première moitié du XIIIe siècle)
Une affaire diplomatique : la demande d’une relique insigne de Pierre Orseolo par la république de Venise à l’abbaye de Saint-Michel de Cuxa
Daniel CODINA I GIOL
Sources littéraires de la Vita ou Gesta de saint Pierre Orseolo
La tribune du prieuré de Serrabona et sa « balustrade »